Autoimmune diseases and symptoms

The diseases and symptoms listed below are the most common autoimmune diseases in women and men. Although each disease is unique, many share hallmark symptoms, such as fatigue, dizziness, and low-grade fever. For many autoimmune diseases, symptoms come and go, or can be mild sometimes and severe at others. When symptoms go away for a while, it's called remission. Flares are the sudden and severe onset of symptoms:

Alopecia areata 
The immune system attacks hair follicles (the structures from which hair grows). It usually does not threaten health, but it can greatly affect the way a person looks.
Patchy hair loss on the scalp, face, or other areas of your body
 
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome 
A disease that causes problems in the inner lining of blood vessels resulting in blood clots in arteries or veins.
Blood clots in veins or arteries
Multiple miscarriages
Lacy, net-like red rash on the wrists and knees
 
Autoimmune hepatitis
The immune system attacks and destroys the liver cells. This can lead to scarring and hardening of the liver, and possibly liver failure.
Fatigue
Enlarged liver
Yellowing of the skin or whites of eyes
Itchy skin
Joint pain
Stomach pain or upset


Celiac disease
A disease in which people can't tolerate gluten, a substance found in wheat, rye, and barley, and also some medicines. When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products that have gluten, the immune system responds by damaging the lining of the small intestines.
Abdominal bloating and pain
Diarrhea or constipation
Weight loss or weight gain
Fatigue
Missed menstrual periods
Itchy skin rash
Infertility or miscarriages


Diabetes type 1
A disease in which your immune system attacks the cells that make insulin, a hormone needed to control blood sugar levels. As a result, your body cannot make insulin. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in your blood. High blood sugar can hurt the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. But the most serious problem caused by diabetes is heart disease.
Being very thirsty
Urinating often
Feeling very hungry or tired
Losing weight without trying
Having sores that heal slowly
Dry, itchy skin
Losing the feeling in your feet or having tingling in your feet
Having blurry eyesight


Graves' disease (overactive thyroid)
A disease that causes the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone.
Insomnia
Irritability
Weight loss
Heat sensitivity
Sweating
Fine brittle hair
Muscle weakness
Light menstrual periods
Bulging eyes
Shaky hands
Sometimes there are no symptoms


Guillain-Barre syndrome

The immune system attacks the nerves that connect your brain and spinal cord with the rest of your body. Damage to the nerves makes it hard for them to transmit signals. As a result, the muscles have trouble responding to the brain.
Weakness or tingling feeling in the legs that might spread to the upper body
Paralysis in severe cases
Symptoms often progress relatively quickly, over a period of days or weeks, and often occur on both sides of the body.


Hashimoto's disease (underactive thyroid)
A disease that causes the thyroid to not make enough thyroid hormone.
Fatigue
Weakness
Weight gain
Sensitivity to cold
Muscle aches and stiff joints
Facial swelling
Constipation


Hemolytic anemia 
The immune system destroys the red blood cells. Yet the body can't make new red blood cells fast enough to meet the body's needs. As a result, your body does not get the oxygen it needs to function well, and your heart must work harder to move oxygen-rich blood throughout the body.
Fatigue
Shortness of breath
Dizziness
Headache
Cold hands or feet
Paleness
Yellowish skin or whites of eyes
Heart problems, including heart failure


Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
A disease in which the immune system destroys blood platelets, which are needed for blood to clot.
Very heavy menstrual period
Tiny purple or red dots on the skin that might look like a rash.
Easy bruising
Nosebleed or bleeding in the mouth


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
A disease that causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn's (krohnz) disease and ulcerative colitis (UHL-sur-uh-tiv koh-LEYE-tuhss) are the most common forms of IBD.
Abdominal pain
Diarrhea, which may be bloody
Some people also have:
Rectal bleeding
Fever
Weight loss
FatigueMouth ulcers (in Crohn's disease)

Painful or difficult bowel movements (in ulcerative colitis)


Inflammatory myopathies
A group of diseases that involve muscle inflammation and muscle weakness. Polymyositis (pol-ee-meye-uh-SYT-uhss) and dermatomyositis (dur-muh-toh-meye-uh-SYT-uhss) are 2 types more common in women than men.
Slow but progressive muscle weakness beginning in the muscles closest to the trunk of the body. Polymyositis affects muscles involved with making movement on both sides of the body. With dermatomyositis, a skin rash comes before or at the same time as muscle weakness.
May also have:
Fatigue after walking or standing
Tripping or falling
Difficulty swallowing or breathing

Multiple sclerosis (MS)
A disease in which the immune system attacks the protective coating around the nerves. The damage affects the brain and spinal cord.
Weakness and trouble with coordination, balance, speaking, and walking
Paralysis
Tremors
Numbness and tingling feeling in arms, legs, hands, and feet
Symptoms vary because the location and extent of each attack vary


Myasthenia gravis (MG)
A disease in which the immune system attacks the nerves and muscles throughout the body.
Double vision, trouble keeping a steady gaze, and drooping eyelids
Trouble swallowing, with frequent gagging or choking
Weakness or paralysis
Muscles that work better after rest
Drooping head
Trouble climbing stairs or lifting things
Trouble talking


Primary biliary cirrhosis 
The immune system slowly destroys the liver's bile ducts. Bile is a substance made in the liver. It travels through the bile ducts to help with digestion. When the ducts are destroyed, the bile builds up in the liver and hurts it. The damage causes the liver to harden and scar, and eventually stop working.
Fatigue
Itchy skin
Dry eyes and mouth
Yellowing of skin and whites of eyes


Psoriasis 
A disease that causes new skin cells that grow deep in your skin to rise too fast and pile up on the skin surface.
Thick red patches, covered with scales, usually appearing on the head, elbows, and knees
Itching and pain, which can make it hard to sleep, walk, and care for yourself
May have:
A form of arthritis that often affects the joints and the ends of the fingers and toes. Back pain can occur if the spine is involved.

Rheumatoid arthritis 
A disease in which the immune system attacks the lining of the joints throughout the body.
Painful, stiff, swollen, and deformed joints
Reduced movement and function
May have:
Fatigue
Fever
Weight loss
Eye inflammation
Lung disease
Lumps of tissue under the skin, often the elbows
Anemia


Scleroderma 
A disease causing abnormal growth of connective tissue in the skin and blood vessels.
Fingers and toes that turn white, red, or blue in response to heat and cold
Pain, stiffness, and swelling of fingers and joints
Thickening of the skin
Skin that looks shiny on the hands and forearm
Tight and mask-like facial skin
Sores on the fingers or toes
Trouble swallowing
Weight loss
Diarrhea or constipation
Shortness of breath


Sjögren's syndrome
A disease in which the immune system targets the glands that make moisture, such as tears and saliva.
Dry eyes or eyes that itch
Dryness of the mouth, which can cause sores
Trouble swallowing
Loss of sense of taste
Severe dental cavities
Hoarse voice
Fatigue
Joint swelling or pain
Swollen glands
Cloudy eyes


Systemic lupus erythematosus 
A disease that can damage the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, and other parts of the body. Also called SLE or lupus.
Fever
Weight loss
Hair loss
Mouth sores
Fatigue
"Butterfly" rash across the nose and cheeks
Rashes on other parts of the body
Painful or swollen joints and muscle pain
Sensitivity to the sun
Chest pain
Headache, dizziness, seizure, memory problems, or change in behavior


Vitiligo 
The immune system destroys the cells that give your skin its color. It also can affect the tissue inside your mouth and nose.
White patches on areas exposed to the sun, or on armpits, genitals, and rectum
Hair turns gray early
Loss of color inside your mouth


In generel the early symptoms of many autoimmune diseases are very similar, such as:

  • fatigue

  • achy muscles

  • swelling and redness

  • low-grade fever

  • trouble concentrating

  • numbness and tingling in the hands and feet

  • hair loss

  • skin rashes

Individual diseases can also have their own unique symptoms. For example, type 1 diabetes causes extreme thirst, weight loss, and fatigue. IBD causes belly pain, bloating, and diarrhea.

With autoimmune diseases like psoriasis or RA, symptoms come and go. Periods of symptoms are called flare-ups. Periods when the symptoms go away are called remissions. - omformuler

Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia are not autoimmune diseases. But they often have symptoms of some autoimmune disease, like being tired all the time and pain. Chronic fatigue syndrome can cause you to be very tired, have trouble concentrating, feel weak, and have muscle pain. Symptoms of Chronic fatigue syndrome come and go. The cause of Chronic fatigue syndrome is not known. Fibromyalgia is a disorder in which pain or tenderness is felt in multiple places all over the body. These "tender points" are located on the neck, shoulders, back, hips, arms, and legs and are painful when pressure is applied to them. Other symptoms include fatigue, trouble sleeping, and morning stiffness. Fibromyalgia mainly occurs in women of childbearing age. But children, the elderly, and men are sometimes can also get it. The cause is not known.



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